gorm.Model is a basic GoLang struct which includes the following fields: ID, CreatedAt, UpdatedAt, DeletedAt.

It may be embedded into your model or you may build your own model without it.

// gorm.Model definition
type Model struct {
ID uint `gorm:"primary_key"`
CreatedAt time.Time
UpdatedAt time.Time
DeletedAt *time.Time

// Inject fields `ID`, `CreatedAt`, `UpdatedAt`, `DeletedAt` into model `User`
type User struct {
Name string

// Declaring model w/o gorm.Model
type User struct {
ID int
Name string

ID as Primary Key

GORM uses any field with the name ID as the table’s primary key by default.

type User struct {
ID string // field named `ID` will be used as primary field by default
Name string

// Set field `AnimalID` as primary field
type Animal struct {
AnimalID int64 `gorm:"primary_key"`
Name string
Age int64

Pluralized Table Name

Table name is the pluralized version of struct name.

type User struct {} // default table name is `users`

// Set User's table name to be `profiles`
func (User) TableName() string {
return "profiles"

func (u User) TableName() string {
if u.Role == "admin" {
return "admin_users"
} else {
return "users"

// Disable table name's pluralization, if set to true, `User`'s table name will be `user`

Specifying The Table Name

// Create `deleted_users` table with struct User's definition

var deleted_users []User
//// SELECT * FROM deleted_users;

db.Table("deleted_users").Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Delete()
//// DELETE FROM deleted_users WHERE name = 'jinzhu';

Change default tablenames

You can apply any rules on the default table name by defining the DefaultTableNameHandler.

gorm.DefaultTableNameHandler = func (db *gorm.DB, defaultTableName string) string  {
return "prefix_" + defaultTableName;

Snake Case Column Name

Column names will be the field’s name is lower snake case.

type User struct {
ID uint // column name is `id`
Name string // column name is `name`
Birthday time.Time // column name is `birthday`
CreatedAt time.Time // column name is `created_at`

// Overriding Column Name
type Animal struct {
AnimalId int64 `gorm:"column:beast_id"` // set column name to `beast_id`
Birthday time.Time `gorm:"column:day_of_the_beast"` // set column name to `day_of_the_beast`
Age int64 `gorm:"column:age_of_the_beast"` // set column name to `age_of_the_beast`

Timestamp Tracking


For models having a CreatedAt field, it will be set to the time when the record is first created.

db.Create(&user) // will set `CreatedAt` to current time

// To change its value, you could use `Update`
db.Model(&user).Update("CreatedAt", time.Now())


For models having an UpdatedAt field, it will be set to time when the record is updated.

db.Save(&user) // will set `UpdatedAt` to current time

db.Model(&user).Update("name", "jinzhu") // will set `UpdatedAt` to current time


For models with a DeletedAt field, when Delete is called on that instance, it won’t truly be deleted from database, but will set its DeletedAt field to the current time. Refer to Soft Delete